Management of diabetic macular edema with intravitreal dexamethasone implants: Expert recommendations using a Delphi-based approach: European Journal of Ophthalmology

A Giovannini, M Parravano, F Ricci, F Bandello

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objectives: Despite being approved and effective, steroids, and especially dexamethasone intravitreal implants, still have a poorly-defined role in management of diabetic macular edema. In order to overcome some of the limitations in current recommendations, a group of experts met to define consensus on some of the most controversial issues on the use of dexamethasone intravitreal implants in daily management of diabetic macular edema. Methods: A Delphi-based approach was utilized to develop clinically relevant statements applicable to routine treatment settings. A Steering Committee composed of four experts formulated 30 relevant statements, which were voted upon by a panel of 40 ophthalmologists/retinal specialists from across Italy. Results: Dexamethasone intravitreal implants were considered to be a valid first-line alternative to treatment with an anti–vascular endothelial growth factor agent and should be the first choice in pseudophakic and vitrectomized patients. A Pro Re Nata regimen was felt to be appropriate for retreatment with dexamethasone intravitreal implants while a 6-month waiting period was not considered suitable. Among steroid treatments, dexamethasone intravitreal implants were considered to have the best ocular tolerability. In patients with persistent macular edema after the loading-phase treatment with an anti–vascular endothelial growth factor, consensus was reached that clinicians should consider switching therapy to dexamethasone intravitreal implants. Moreover, dexamethasone intravitreal implants can reduce the treatment burden for individuals who are not able to cope with the more intensive treatment regimen required by anti–vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Conclusions: While further studies are needed, this survey provides some key recommendations for clinicians treating diabetic macular edema that may be useful when choosing dexamethasone intravitreal implants in daily practice. © The Author(s) 2018.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)82-91
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Ophthalmology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019


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