Patients with prostate cancer are increasingly being offered treatment with non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy, which offers potential quality-of-life benefits compared with other treatment. Non-steroidal antiandrogens directly antagonise androgen action in breast tissue, and indirectly increase the oestrogen concentration. Thus, the most troublesome side-effects of monotherapy with these drugs are gynaecomastia and breast pain. Patients younger than 60 years of age, who might not have symptoms of prostate cancer, are probably more concerned about their body image and the development of enlarged breasts than are those older than 60 years. Clinicians who seek a treatment for prostate cancer need information on simple and well-tolerated options for the management of gynaecomastia and breast pain. In this review, management options for gynaecomastia caused by hormonal manipulation in patients with prostate cancer are discussed.
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