Management of heart failure in the new era: the role of scores

Valentina Mantegazza, Roberto Badagliacca, Savina Nodari, Gianfranco Parati, Carolina Lombardi, Salvatore Di Somma, Erberto Carluccio, Frank Lloyd Dini, Michele Correale, Damiano Magrì, Piergiuseppe Agostoni, “Insufficienza del cuore destro e sinistro group, a research group of the Italian Society of Cardiology

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


AIMS: Heart failure is a widespread syndrome involving several organs, still characterized by high mortality and morbidity, and whose clinical course is heterogeneous and hardly predictable.In this scenario, the assessment of heart failure prognosis represents a fundamental step in clinical practice. A single parameter is always unable to provide a very precise prognosis. Therefore, risk scores based on multiple parameters have been introduced, but their clinical utility is still modest.

METHODS: In this review, we evaluated several prognostic models for acute, right, chronic, and end-stage heart failure based on multiple parameters. In particular, for chronic heart failure we considered risk scores essentially based on clinical evaluation, comorbidities analysis, baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, sleep disorders, laboratory tests, echocardiographic imaging, and cardiopulmonary exercise test parameters.

RESULTS: What is at present established is that a single parameter is not sufficient for an accurate prediction of prognosis in heart failure because of the complex nature of the disease. However, none of the scoring systems available is widely used, being in some cases complex, not user-friendly, or based on expensive or not easily available parameters.

CONCLUSION: We believe that multiparametric scores for risk assessment in heart failure are promising but their widespread use needs to be experienced.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)569-80
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2016


  • Journal Article


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