Hepatitis C virus-related liver disease and its associated complications are steadily emerging health concerns in persons co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The increasing number of liver-related deaths in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus co-infected individuals supports the compelling argument for more aggressive treatment in these patients. The safety and efficacy of interferon/ribavirin in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus co-infected patients is currently under evaluation. Despite well-documented concern over highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated hepatotoxicity human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus co-infected patients should be offered antiretroviral therapy. Since management of co-infected patients is complex a multidisciplinary approach is needed in order to facilitate care and help patients to achieve a positive outcome.
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