Mapping distributed sources of cortical rhythms in mild Alzheimer's disease. A multicentric EEG study

Claudio Babiloni, Giuliano Binetti, Emanuele Cassetta, Daniele Cerboneschi, Gloria Dal Forno, Claudio Del Percio, Florinda Ferreri, Raffaele Ferri, Bartolo Lanuzza, Carlo Miniussi, Davide V. Moretti, Flavio Nobili, Roberto D. Pascual-Marqui, Guido Rodriguez, Gian Luca Romani, Serenella Salinari, Franca Tecchio, Paolo Vitali, Orazio Zanetti, Filippo ZappasodiPaolo M. Rossini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The study aimed at mapping (i) the distributed electroencephalographic (EEG) sources specific for mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to vascular dementia (VaD) or normal elderly people (Nold) and (ii) the distributed EEG sources sensitive to the mild AD at different stages of severity. Resting EEG (10-20 electrode montage) was recorded from 48 mild AD, 20 VaD, and 38 Nold subjects. Both AD and VaD patients had 24-17 of mini mental state examination (MMSE). EEG rhythms were delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta 1 (13-20 Hz), and beta 2 (20-30 Hz). Cortical EEG sources were modeled by low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). Regarding issue i, there was a decline of central, parietal, temporal, and limbic alpha 1 (low alpha) sources specific for mild AD group with respect to Nold and VaD groups. Furthermore, occipital alpha 1 sources showed a strong decline in mild AD compared to VaD group. Finally, distributed theta sources were largely abnormal in VaD but not in mild AD group. Regarding issue ii, there was a lower power of occipital alpha 1 sources in mild AD subgroup having more severe disease. Compared to previous field studies, this was the first investigation that illustrated the power spectrum profiles at the level of cortical (macroregions) EEG sources in mild AD patients having different severity of the disease with respect to VaD and normal subjects. Future studies should evaluate the clinical usefulness of this approach in early differential diagnosis, disease staging, and therapy monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)57-67
Number of pages11
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - May 2004


  • Alpha rhythm
  • Electroencephalography (EEG)
  • Low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA)
  • Mild Alzheimer's disease (mild AD)
  • Vascular dementia (VaD)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Neurology


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