Background: The increased number of childbearing women with autoimmune diseases leads to a growing interest in studying relationship among maternal disease, therapy, pregnancy and off-spring. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of autoimmune disease on pregnancy and on neonatal outcome, taking into account the maternal treatment and the transplacental autoantibodies passage. Methods: We studied 70 infants born to 70 pregnant women with autoimmune disease attended in Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy from June 2005 to June 2012. Maternal and neonatal characteristics were collected and relevant clinical, laboratory, therapeutics, sonographic and electrocardiographic investigations were recorded and analyzed. Results: We observed a high rate of spontaneous abortions in medical history, 29 %, and 18.6 % of preterm births and 22.9 % of low birth weight (<2500 g). Transplacental autoantibodies passage wasn't related to maternal or obstetrical complication, but anti-Ro/SSA positive pregnancies correlated with abnormal fetal heart rate (P = 0.01). Pregnant women on therapy showed an higher incidence of maternal (p = 0.002), obstetric (p = 0.007) complications and an increased rate of intrauterine growth restriction (p = 0.01) than the untreated ones. Conclusions: Autoimmune diseases in pregnancy require to be carefully monitored to ensure the best possible management of mothers, fetuses and newborns due to the high rate of morbidity specially in case of maternal polytherapy and/or anti-Ro/SSA positivity.
- Autoimmune disease
- Maternal and neonatal outcome
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health