BACKGROUND: The classification of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy is based on the time at the onset of hypertension, proteinuria, and other associated complications. Maternal hemodynamic interrogation in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy considers not only the peripheral blood pressure but also the entire cardiovascular system, and it might help to classify the different clinical phenotypes of this syndrome.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine cardiovascular parameters in a cohort of patients affected by hypertensive disorders of pregnancy according to the clinical phenotypes that prioritize fetoplacental characteristics and not the time at onset of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
STUDY DESIGN: At the fetal-maternal medicine unit of Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg (Genk, Belgium), maternal cardiovascular parameters were obtained through impedance cardiography using a noninvasive continuous cardiac output monitor with the patients placed in a standing position. The patients were classified as pregnant women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy who delivered appropriate- and small-for-gestational-age fetuses. Normotensive pregnant women with an appropriate-for-gestational-age fetus at delivery were enrolled as the control group. The possible impact of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) on maternal hemodynamics was reassessed in the same groups.
RESULTS: Maternal age, parity, body mass index, and blood pressure were not significantly different between the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/appropriate-for-gestational-age and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/small-for-gestational-age groups. The mean uterine artery pulsatility index was significantly higher in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/small-for-gestational-age group. The cardiac output and cardiac index were significantly lower in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/small-for-gestational-age group (cardiac output 6.5 L/min, cardiac index 3.6) than in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/appropriate-for-gestational-age group (cardiac output 7.6 L/min, cardiac index 3.9) but not between the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/appropriate-for-gestational-age and control groups (cardiac output 7.6 L/min, cardiac index 4.0). Total vascular resistance was significantly higher in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/small-for-gestational-age group than in the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/appropriate-for-gestational-age group and the control group. All women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy showed signs of central arterial dysfunction. The cardiovascular parameters were not influenced by gestational age at the onset of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and no difference was observed between the women with appropriate-for-gestational-age fetuses affected by preeclampsia or by gestational hypertension with appropriate-for-gestational-age fetuses. Women in the obese/hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/appropriate-for-gestational-age and obese/hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/small-for-gestational-age groups showed a significant increase in cardiac output, as well as significant changes in other parameters, compared with the nonobese/hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/appropriate-for-gestational-age and nonobese/hypertensive disorders of pregnancy/small-for-gestational-age groups.
CONCLUSION: Significantly low cardiac output and high total vascular resistance characterized the women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy associated with small for gestational age due to placental insufficiency, independent of the gestational age at the onset of hypertension. The cardiovascular parameters were not significantly different in the women with appropriate-for-gestational-age or small-for-gestational-age fetuses affected by preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. These findings support the view that maternal hemodynamics may be a candidate diagnostic tool to identify hypertensive disorders in pregnancies associated with small-for-gestational-age fetuses. This additional tool matches other reported evidence provided by uterine Doppler velocimetry, low vascular growth factors in the first trimester, and placental pathology. Obesity is associated with a significantly higher cardiac output and outweighs other determinants of hemodynamics in pregnancy; therefore, in future studies on hypertensive disorders, obesity should be studied as an additional disease and not simply as a demographic characteristic.
- Blood Flow Velocity/physiology
- Cardiac Output, Low/physiopathology
- Case-Control Studies
- Cohort Studies
- Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/physiopathology
- Infant, Newborn
- Infant, Small for Gestational Age
- Placental Insufficiency/physiopathology
- Vascular Resistance/physiology