In the past decade, adipose tissue has become a highly interesting source of adult stem cells for plastic surgery and regenerative medicine. The adipose source offers two options for the isolation of regenerative cells: the enzymatic digestion an expensive time-consuming procedure lacking a common standard operating protocol, or the non-enzymatic dissociation methods based on mechanical forces to break the processed adipose tissue. Here, we propose innovative inexpensive non-enzymatic protocols to collect and concentrate clinically useful regenerative cells from adipose tissue by centrifugation of the infranatant fraction of lipoaspirate as first step, usually discarded as a byproduct of the surgical procedure, and by fat shaking and wash as second enrichment step. The isolated cells were characterized according to the criteria proposed by the Mesenchymal and Tissue Stem Cell Committee of the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) to define human mesenchymal stem cells, and the results were compared with matched lipoaspirate samples processed with collagenase. The results demonstrated the usability of these new procedures as an alternative to fat grafting for treating stem cell-depleted tissues and for specific application requiring minimal or null soft tissue augmentation, such as skin diseases including severe burn and post-oncological scaring, chronic non-healing wounds, and vitiligo.
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