N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) is a solvent that is widely used in industry. The major occupational sources of exposure results from production of synthetic leather. The main metabolite formed in both man and animals is N-hydroxymethyl-N-methylformamide. Demethylation leads to N-methylformamide (NMF) and formamide and also to a small extent to hydroxy-methylformamide. All the metabolites are excreted in urine, as are very small amounts of the unchanged substance. N-acetyl-S-(N-methyl-carbamoyl)-cysteine can be determined in urine as a further metabolite. We conducted this biomonitoring study with the aim of evaluating the correlation between the excretion of N-methylformamide (mainly from N-hydroxymethylformamide) and levels of exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide among occupationally exposed people. The mean time-weighted average (TWA) exposure was about half (13.5 mg/m3) of the current threshold limit value, the range of the values varying from 0.4 to 75.2 mg/m3. A linear equation existed between urinary NMF concentration and DMF concentration in the environment. The findings show that the urinary NMF concentration can be used as an appropriate biological exposure index. The authors suggest for occupationally exposed subjects, a urinary NMF concentration corresponding to the time-weighted average of the threshold limit value of 39.9 mg/l (37.2 mg/g creatinine) and a 95% lower confidence limit (biological threshold) of 23.4 mg/l (22.2 mg/g creatinine).
|Translated title of the contribution||Measurement of N-methylformamide in occupational exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide|
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||Medicina del Lavoro|
|Publication status||Published - 2000|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health