Measures to Minimize Series Faults in Electrical Cords and Extension Cords

Giuseppe Parise, Erling Hesla, Claudio S. Mardegan, Luigi Parise, Elisabetta Bragagni Capaccini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In electrical power systems, cords and extension cords are exposed to mechanical damage and other insulation stresses. Mechanical damage to stranded conductors can reduce locally their cross section or break them and cause anomalous local conditions of overheating or arcing. The ordinary protective devices cannot detect the series faults that persist, so the fault point remains energized and is subject to electric shock and fire hazards. Effective protection can be accomplished by implementing active and passive measures: installing arc-fault circuit interrupters or arc-fault detection devices, able to detect arcing faults, or wiring the circuits with a grounding protection conductor to involve the ground in every fault. In this way, residual current protective devices (residual current devices or ground fault protective devices) quickly protect the series faults not only with arc, but also without it. Ground-fault-forced cables facilitate by design the conversion of any kind of cable fault to a ground fault. They are particularly recommended for cords and extension cords, internal circuits to grounded equipment, uninterruptible power system continuity circuits, aircraft circuits, road tunnels, data centers, refrigerated containers parks, residences, and hospitals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8752427
Pages (from-to)4551-4556
Number of pages6
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1 2019


  • Anomalous overheating
  • arcing and burning
  • arcing fault
  • circuit protection
  • fire ignition hazard
  • ground fault detection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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