Mechanism of inflammation in age-related macular degeneration: An up-to-date on genetic landmarks

Francesco Parmeggiani, Francesco S. Sorrentino, Mario R. Romano, Ciro Costagliola, Francesco Semeraro, Carlo Incorvaia, Sergio D'Angelo, Paolo Perri, Katia De Nadai, Elia Bonomo Roversi, Paola Franceschelli, Adolfo Sebastiani, Michele Rubini

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Abstract

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible visual impairment among people over 50 years of age, accounting for up to 50% of all cases of legal blindness in Western countries. Although the aging represents the main determinant of AMD, it must be considered a multifaceted disease caused by interactions among environmental risk factors and genetic backgrounds. Mounting evidence and/or arguments document the crucial role of inflammation and immune-mediated processes in the pathogenesis of AMD. Proinflammatory effects secondary to chronic inflammation (e.g., alternative complement activation) and heterogeneous types of oxidative stress (e.g., impaired cholesterol homeostasis) can result in degenerative damages at the level of crucial macular structures, that is photoreceptors, retinal pigment epithelium, and Bruch's membrane. In the most recent years, the association of AMD with genes, directly or indirectly, involved in immunoinflammatory pathways is increasingly becoming an essential core for AMD knowledge. Starting from the key basic-research notions detectable at the root of AMD pathogenesis, the present up-to-date paper reviews the best-known and/or the most attractive genetic findings linked to the mechanisms of inflammation of this complex disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number435607
JournalMediators of Inflammation
Volume2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Parmeggiani, F., Sorrentino, F. S., Romano, M. R., Costagliola, C., Semeraro, F., Incorvaia, C., D'Angelo, S., Perri, P., De Nadai, K., Bonomo Roversi, E., Franceschelli, P., Sebastiani, A., & Rubini, M. (2013). Mechanism of inflammation in age-related macular degeneration: An up-to-date on genetic landmarks. Mediators of Inflammation, 2013, [435607]. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/435607