Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of bromelain plus tamsulosin versus tamsulosin alone as medical expulsive therapy (MET) for promoting spontaneous stone passage (SSP) of symptomatic distal ureter stones. Patients and Methods: One-hundred-fourteen patients with a 4-10 mm distal ureteral stone were enrolled (Group A). Patients self-administered daily bromelain with tamsulosin for 30 days or until SSP or intervention was mandatory. Patients were compared to those from a control group taking tamsulosin as MET (Group B) and matched for the following factors: sex, age ±10%, stone diameter. A logistic regression model evaluated bromelain and the ureteral stone diameter as explanatory variables. Results: SSP rates were 87.7 vs. 75.4% for group A vs. group B respectively (p = 0.016); with no difference observed for the time to self-reported stone expulsion (11.68 vs. 11.57 days; p = 0.91). Considering larger stones (> 5 mm), the SSP rate was 83.3% in group A and 61% in group B (p < 0.01). With each millimeter increment of stone diameter, the probability of SSP decreased by 59.1% (p < 0.0001), while it increased of 3.3 when bromelain was present. Only 3 cases of tamsulosin-related adverse events were recorded. Conclusion: The association of bromelain and tamsulosin as MET increases the probability of SSP of symptomatic distal ureteral stones, with no bromelain-related side effects recorded.
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