Medical history, lifestyle, family history, and occupational risk factors for Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma: The interLymph non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes project

James R. Cerhan, Anne Kricker, Ora Paltiel, Christopher R. Flowers, Sophia S. Wang, Alain Monnereau, Aaron Blair, Luigino Dal Maso, Eleanor V. Kane, Alexandra Nieters, James M. Foran, Lucia Miligi, Jacqueline Clavel, Leslie Bernstein, Nathaniel Rothman, Susan L. Slager, Joshua N. Sampson, Lindsay M. Morton, Christine F. Skibola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Although risk factors for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) have been suggested, their independent effects, modification by sex, and association with anatomical sites are largely unknown. Methods: In a pooled analysis of 4667 cases and 22 639 controls from 19 studies, we used stepwise logistic regression to identify the most parsimonious multivariate models for DLBCL overall, by sex, and for selected anatomical sites. Results: DLBCL was associated with B-cell activating autoimmune diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 2.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.80 to 3.09), hepatitis C virus seropositivity (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.47 to 2.76), family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.54 to 2.47), higher young adult body mass index (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.23, for 35+ vs 18.5 to 22.4 kg/m2), higher recreational sun exposure (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.69 to 0.89), any atopic disorder (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.89), and higher socioeconomic status (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.94). Additional risk factors for women were occupation as field crop/vegetable farm worker (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.22 to 2.60), hairdresser (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.41), and seamstress/embroider (OR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.13 to 1.97), low adult body mass index (OR = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.29 to 0.74, for 2), hormone replacement therapy started age at least 50 years (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52 to 0.88), and oral contraceptive use before 1970 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62 to 1.00); and for men were occupation as material handling equipment operator (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.44), lifetime alcohol consumption (OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.44 to 0.75, for >400 kg vs nondrinker), and previous blood transfusion (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.57 to 0.83). Autoimmune disease, atopy, and family history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma showed similar associations across selected anatomical sites, whereas smoking was associated with central nervous system, testicular and cutaneous DLBCLs; inflammatory bowel disease was associated with gastrointestinal DLBCL; and farming and hair dye use were associated with mediastinal DLBCL. Conclusion: Our results support a complex and multifactorial etiology for DLBCL with some variation in risk observed by sex and anatomical site.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-25
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the National Cancer Institute - Monographs
Issue number48
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

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