Melanins and melanogenesis: Methods, standards, protocols

Marco D'Ischia, Kazumasa Wakamatsu, Alessandra Napolitano, Stefania Briganti, José Carlos Garcia-Borron, Daniela Kovacs, Paul Meredith, Alessandro Pezzella, Mauro Picardo, Tadeusz Sarna, John D. Simon, Shosuke Ito

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Summary: Despite considerable advances in the past decade, melanin research still suffers from the lack of universally accepted and shared nomenclature, methodologies, and structural models. This paper stems from the joint efforts of chemists, biochemists, physicists, biologists, and physicians with recognized and consolidated expertise in the field of melanins and melanogenesis, who critically reviewed and experimentally revisited methods, standards, and protocols to provide for the first time a consensus set of recommended procedures to be adopted and shared by researchers involved in pigment cell research. The aim of the paper was to define an unprecedented frame of reference built on cutting-edge knowledge and state-of-the-art methodology, to enable reliable comparison of results among laboratories and new progress in the field based on standardized methods and shared information.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)616-633
Number of pages18
JournalPigment Cell and Melanoma Research
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2013


  • Melanin analysis
  • Melanin isolation
  • Melanin spectral characterization
  • Melanin synthesis
  • Melanogenesis enzymes
  • Method standardization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology
  • Oncology
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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