Men Experience Higher Risk of Pneumonia and Death After Intracerebral Hemorrhage

Sandro Marini, Andrea Morotti, Umme K. Lena, Joshua N. Goldstein, Steven M. Greenberg, Jonathan Rosand, Christopher D. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Infectious complications worsen outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the impact of sex on post-ICH infections and mortality. Methods: Consecutive ICH patients (admitted to a single hospital between 1994 and 2015) were retrospectively assessed via chart review to ascertain the following in-hospital infections: urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, and sepsis. Adjusted logistic regression was performed to identify associations between sex, infection, and mortality at 90 days. Results: Two thousand and four patients were investigated, 1071 (53.7%) males. Men were more likely to develop pneumonia (21.9 vs 15.5% p < 0.001) and sepsis (3.4 vs 1.6%, p = 0.009), whereas women had higher risk of UTI (19.9 vs 11.7% p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses confirmed association between male sex and pneumonia (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.74, p = 0.011). Male sex (OR 1.40; CI 1.07–1.85; p = 0.015) and infection (OR 1.56; CI 1.11–1.85; p = 0.011) were independently associated with higher 90-day mortality. Conclusions: Types and rates of infection following ICH differ by sex. Male sex independently increases pneumonia risk, which subsequently increases 90-day mortality. Sex-specific preventive strategies to reduce the risk of these complications may be one strategy to improve ICH outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-82
Number of pages6
JournalNeurocritical Care
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2018


  • Infections
  • Intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Mortality
  • Pneumonia
  • Sepsis
  • Sex

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine


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