Background: Infectious complications worsen outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We investigated the impact of sex on post-ICH infections and mortality. Methods: Consecutive ICH patients (admitted to a single hospital between 1994 and 2015) were retrospectively assessed via chart review to ascertain the following in-hospital infections: urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, and sepsis. Adjusted logistic regression was performed to identify associations between sex, infection, and mortality at 90 days. Results: Two thousand and four patients were investigated, 1071 (53.7%) males. Men were more likely to develop pneumonia (21.9 vs 15.5% p < 0.001) and sepsis (3.4 vs 1.6%, p = 0.009), whereas women had higher risk of UTI (19.9 vs 11.7% p < 0.001). Multivariate analyses confirmed association between male sex and pneumonia (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–1.74, p = 0.011). Male sex (OR 1.40; CI 1.07–1.85; p = 0.015) and infection (OR 1.56; CI 1.11–1.85; p = 0.011) were independently associated with higher 90-day mortality. Conclusions: Types and rates of infection following ICH differ by sex. Male sex independently increases pneumonia risk, which subsequently increases 90-day mortality. Sex-specific preventive strategies to reduce the risk of these complications may be one strategy to improve ICH outcomes.
- Intracerebral hemorrhage
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine