BACKGROUND: Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the mechanisms underlying meningioma-related hyperostosis. In this study, we investigated the role of osteoprotegerin (OPG), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), endothelin 1 (ET-1), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 2 and 4.
METHODS: A total of 149 patients (39 males and 110 females; mean age, 62 years) who underwent surgery were included. Depending on the relationship with the bone, meningiomas were classified as hyperostotic, osteolytic, infiltrative, or unrelated. Expression of OPG, and IGF-1, ET-1, BMP-2, and BMP-4 was evaluated by tissue microarray analysis of surgical samples.
RESULTS: Our series comprised 132 cases of grade I, 14 cases of grade II, and 3 cases of grade III meningiomas, according to the World Health Organization classification. Based on preoperative computed tomography scan, the cases were classified as follows: hyperostotic, n = 11; osteolytic, n = 11; infiltrative, n = 15; unrelated to the bone, n = 108. Four cases were excluded from the statistical analysis. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we identified a 2% cutoff for the mean value of IGF-1 that discriminated between osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions; cases with a mean IGF-1 expression of <2% were classified as osteolytic (P = 0.0046), whereas those with a mean OPG expression of <10% were classified as osteolytic (P = 0.048). No other significant relationships were found.
CONCLUSIONS: Expression of OPG and expression of IGF-1 were found to be associated with the development of hyperostosis. Preliminary findings suggest that hyperostosis can be caused by an overexpression of osteogenic molecules that influence osteoblast/osteoclast activity. Based on our results, further studies on hyperostotic bony tissue in meningiomas are needed to better understand how meningiomas influence bone overproduction.
- Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2/biosynthesis
- Bone Morphogenetic Proteins/biosynthesis
- Gene Expression
- Hyperostosis/diagnostic imaging
- Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/biosynthesis
- Meningeal Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
- Meningioma/diagnostic imaging
- Middle Aged