Menopause and the risk of cardiovascular diseases

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in women and in men. The incidence of cardiac events in women is lower than in men during the fertile age but increases after menopause. Sex hormones exert significant effects on the cardiovascular system and ovarian hormone deficiency associated with menopause may play an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with hormone replacement therapy, reported in the observational studies, has not been subsequently confirmed in the randomized clinical trials. Thus, hormone replacement therapy is not recommended for cardiovascular prevention. It is extremely important to carefully assess the risk of cardiovascular diseases in women in the peri- and postmenopausal period, in order to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Risk assessment should be extended to older age groups in order to account for the delayed onset of cardiovascular diseases in women. Some therapeutic options may not be equally effective and safe in men and women. However, under-representation of women in cardiovascular research has been demonstrated. The EuroHeart project showed that the 62 randomized clinical trials published between 2006 and 2009 enrolled 33.5% of women and only 50% of the trials reported the analysis of the results by gender. Cardiovascular clinical trials enrolling a significant proportion of women to allow for pre-specified gender analysis should be conducted. Enrolment criteria and follow-up duration should allow the inclusion of women at risk of developing cardiac events.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCurrent Topics in Menopause
PublisherBentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Pages126-142
Number of pages17
ISBN (Print)9781608055159
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Fingerprint

Menopause
Cardiovascular Diseases
Hormone Replacement Therapy
Randomized Controlled Trials
Postmenopause
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Cardiovascular System
Observational Studies
Age Groups
Clinical Trials
Hormones
Mortality
Incidence
Research

Keywords

  • Age
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Cardiovascular risk score
  • Diabetes
  • Guidelines
  • Hormone replacement therapy
  • Hyperlipidemia
  • Hypertension
  • Menopause
  • Observational studies
  • Prevention
  • Randomized controlled trials
  • Sex hormones
  • Smoking
  • Women

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Stramba-Badiale, M. (2013). Menopause and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. In Current Topics in Menopause (pp. 126-142). Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.. https://doi.org/10.2174/9781608054534113010009

Menopause and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. / Stramba-Badiale, Marco.

Current Topics in Menopause. Bentham Science Publishers Ltd., 2013. p. 126-142.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Stramba-Badiale, M 2013, Menopause and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. in Current Topics in Menopause. Bentham Science Publishers Ltd., pp. 126-142. https://doi.org/10.2174/9781608054534113010009
Stramba-Badiale M. Menopause and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. In Current Topics in Menopause. Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. 2013. p. 126-142 https://doi.org/10.2174/9781608054534113010009
Stramba-Badiale, Marco. / Menopause and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Current Topics in Menopause. Bentham Science Publishers Ltd., 2013. pp. 126-142
@inbook{29b9951f578949fdae92533dc6b66190,
title = "Menopause and the risk of cardiovascular diseases",
abstract = "Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in women and in men. The incidence of cardiac events in women is lower than in men during the fertile age but increases after menopause. Sex hormones exert significant effects on the cardiovascular system and ovarian hormone deficiency associated with menopause may play an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with hormone replacement therapy, reported in the observational studies, has not been subsequently confirmed in the randomized clinical trials. Thus, hormone replacement therapy is not recommended for cardiovascular prevention. It is extremely important to carefully assess the risk of cardiovascular diseases in women in the peri- and postmenopausal period, in order to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Risk assessment should be extended to older age groups in order to account for the delayed onset of cardiovascular diseases in women. Some therapeutic options may not be equally effective and safe in men and women. However, under-representation of women in cardiovascular research has been demonstrated. The EuroHeart project showed that the 62 randomized clinical trials published between 2006 and 2009 enrolled 33.5{\%} of women and only 50{\%} of the trials reported the analysis of the results by gender. Cardiovascular clinical trials enrolling a significant proportion of women to allow for pre-specified gender analysis should be conducted. Enrolment criteria and follow-up duration should allow the inclusion of women at risk of developing cardiac events.",
keywords = "Age, Cardiovascular disease, Cardiovascular risk score, Diabetes, Guidelines, Hormone replacement therapy, Hyperlipidemia, Hypertension, Menopause, Observational studies, Prevention, Randomized controlled trials, Sex hormones, Smoking, Women",
author = "Marco Stramba-Badiale",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.2174/9781608054534113010009",
language = "English",
isbn = "9781608055159",
pages = "126--142",
booktitle = "Current Topics in Menopause",
publisher = "Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Menopause and the risk of cardiovascular diseases

AU - Stramba-Badiale, Marco

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in women and in men. The incidence of cardiac events in women is lower than in men during the fertile age but increases after menopause. Sex hormones exert significant effects on the cardiovascular system and ovarian hormone deficiency associated with menopause may play an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with hormone replacement therapy, reported in the observational studies, has not been subsequently confirmed in the randomized clinical trials. Thus, hormone replacement therapy is not recommended for cardiovascular prevention. It is extremely important to carefully assess the risk of cardiovascular diseases in women in the peri- and postmenopausal period, in order to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Risk assessment should be extended to older age groups in order to account for the delayed onset of cardiovascular diseases in women. Some therapeutic options may not be equally effective and safe in men and women. However, under-representation of women in cardiovascular research has been demonstrated. The EuroHeart project showed that the 62 randomized clinical trials published between 2006 and 2009 enrolled 33.5% of women and only 50% of the trials reported the analysis of the results by gender. Cardiovascular clinical trials enrolling a significant proportion of women to allow for pre-specified gender analysis should be conducted. Enrolment criteria and follow-up duration should allow the inclusion of women at risk of developing cardiac events.

AB - Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in women and in men. The incidence of cardiac events in women is lower than in men during the fertile age but increases after menopause. Sex hormones exert significant effects on the cardiovascular system and ovarian hormone deficiency associated with menopause may play an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. The reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases associated with hormone replacement therapy, reported in the observational studies, has not been subsequently confirmed in the randomized clinical trials. Thus, hormone replacement therapy is not recommended for cardiovascular prevention. It is extremely important to carefully assess the risk of cardiovascular diseases in women in the peri- and postmenopausal period, in order to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Risk assessment should be extended to older age groups in order to account for the delayed onset of cardiovascular diseases in women. Some therapeutic options may not be equally effective and safe in men and women. However, under-representation of women in cardiovascular research has been demonstrated. The EuroHeart project showed that the 62 randomized clinical trials published between 2006 and 2009 enrolled 33.5% of women and only 50% of the trials reported the analysis of the results by gender. Cardiovascular clinical trials enrolling a significant proportion of women to allow for pre-specified gender analysis should be conducted. Enrolment criteria and follow-up duration should allow the inclusion of women at risk of developing cardiac events.

KW - Age

KW - Cardiovascular disease

KW - Cardiovascular risk score

KW - Diabetes

KW - Guidelines

KW - Hormone replacement therapy

KW - Hyperlipidemia

KW - Hypertension

KW - Menopause

KW - Observational studies

KW - Prevention

KW - Randomized controlled trials

KW - Sex hormones

KW - Smoking

KW - Women

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84882617227&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84882617227&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.2174/9781608054534113010009

DO - 10.2174/9781608054534113010009

M3 - Chapter

AN - SCOPUS:84882617227

SN - 9781608055159

SP - 126

EP - 142

BT - Current Topics in Menopause

PB - Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

ER -