Menstrual and reproductive factors and biliary tract cancers

A. Tavani, E. Negri, C. La Vecchia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The relationship between the risk of biliary tract cancers and menstrual and reproductive factors has been studied in a case-control study conducted in Milan, northern Italy, between January 1984 and February 1993 on 31 incident, histologically confined cases and 377 controls in hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-gynaecological, non-hormone-related conditions. Odds ratios (ORs) together with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the significance of the linear trends in risk were estimated by unconditional multiple logistic regression, after adjustment for age and cholelithiasis. Menopause was associated with a decreased risk of biliary tract cancers (OR 0.2), while late menopause and the use of hormone replacement therapy tended to increase the risk (ORs 1.8 and 2.2 respectively). Age at menarche and regular menstrual cycles were not associated. A trend in risk was found with parity, while total abortions and age at first and last birth were not related. Thus, the protective effect of early menopause and the apparent association of multiple full-term pregnancies suggest a role of female hormones in the aetiology of biliary tract cancers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)241-247
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Journal of Cancer Prevention
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1996


  • Biliary tract cancer
  • Case-control studies
  • Female hormones
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology


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