Meta-analysis of risk factors for cutaneous melanoma: II. Sun exposure

Sara Gandini, Francesco Sera, Maria Sofia Cattaruzza, Paolo Pasquini, Orietta Picconi, Peter Boyle, Carmelo Francesco Melchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A systematic revision of the literature was conducted in order to undertake a comprehensive meta-analysis of all published observational studies on melanoma. An extensive analysis of the inconsistencies and variability in the estimates was performed to provide some clues about its Epidemiology. Following a systematic literature search, relative risks (RRs) for sun exposure were extracted from 57 studies published before September 2002. Intermittent sun exposure and sunburn history were shown to play considerable roles as risk factors for melanoma, whereas a high occupational sun exposure seemed to be inversely associated to melanoma. The country of study and adjustment of the estimates adjuste for phenotype and photo-type were significantly associated with the variability of the intermittent sun exposure estimates (P = 0.024, 0.003 and 0.030, respectively). For chronic sun exposure, inclusion of controls with dermatological diseases and latitude resulted in significantly different data (P = 0.05 and 0.031, respectively). Latitude was also shown to be important (P = 0.031) for a history of sunburn; studies conducted at higher latitudes presented higher risks for a history of sunburns. Role of country, inclusion of controls with dermatological diseases and other study features seemed to suggest that "well conducted" studies supported the intermittent sun exposure hypothesis: a positive association for intermittent sun exposure and an inverse association with a high continuous pattern of sun exposure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-60
Number of pages16
JournalEuropean Journal of Cancer
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2005


  • Epidemiology
  • Melanoma
  • Meta-analysis
  • Review literature
  • Sunburn
  • Sunlight

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Hematology
  • Oncology


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