Metabolic and morphologic disorders in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy since primary HIV infection

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Abstract

Our objective was to describe morphologic and metabolic disorders in patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) since primary HIV infection (PHI). Our method was prospective evaluation of patients with PHI initiating HAART at the time of diagnosis. Outcome measures were: development of hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and of body shape abnormalities indicative of lipodystrophy, assessed through self-reported questionnaires and physical examination. Results: From May 1997 to April 2001, 41 patients (35 males) with PHI presented at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani" in Rome, Italy. A protease inhibitor-including regimen was started in 30 patients, and a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase-inhibitor in 11. Median interval between enrollment and treatment initiation was 30 days (mean 39, range 10-150). Median HAART duration was 19 months (mean 21.2, range 3-47). Thirty-eight patients had undetectable (less than 80 cp/mL) HIV RNA after a median of 3 months (mean 4.1, range 1-15). Mean CD4 cells count increased from 632/mmc at baseline to 936/mmc at the last follow up. No cases of hyperglycemia (glucose level greater than 110 mg/dL) were observed. After a median of 6 months on HAART, 10 patients developed beyond grade 2 (greater than 240 mg/dL) hypercholesterolemia, 5 developed beyond grade 2 (greater than 400 mg/dL) hypertrygliceridemia, and two developed both. Body mass index did not change significantly. Five patients (12.2%) developed lipodystrophy after a median of 14.5 months (mean 15.3, range 2-30), with an incidence of 7.3 per 100 patient-years. Conclusions: Dyslipidemia and lipodystrophy can occur in patients treated with HAART since PHI. This risk of should be taken into account when considering this early antiretroviral treatment of HIV infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)214-222
Number of pages9
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume946
Publication statusPublished - 2001

Keywords

  • Antiretroviral agents
  • HIV
  • Lipodystrophy
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Primary infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)

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