Metabolic endotoxemia and saturated fat contribute to circulating NGAL concentrations in subjects with insulin resistance

J. M. Moreno-Navarrete, M. Manco, J. Ibá̃ez, E. García-Fuentes, F. Ortega, E. Gorostiaga, J. Vendrell, M. Izquierdo, C. Martínez, G. Nolfe, W. Ricart, G. Mingrone, F. Tinahones, J. M. Fernández-Real

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Lipocalin-2 (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, NGAL) is an innate immune system protein that has been linked to insulin resistance and obesity, but the mechanisms behind these associations are poorly known. We hypothesized that endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and fat intake were in the background of these associations.Design: We studied four cohorts: (1) a cross-sectional study in 194 subjects; (2) the changes in NGAL concentration induced by diet and weight loss in 36 obese women (with circadian rhythm in 8 of them); (3) the effects of acute fat intake on circulating NGAL concentration in 42 morbidly obese subjects; and (4) LPS-induced NGAL secretion ex vivo (whole blood and adipose tissue explants).Results: Serum NGAL concentration was significantly associated with fasting triglycerides and LPS-binding protein in patients with type 2 diabetes. In obese subjects, the intake of saturated fatty acids was the factor that best explained the variance of NGAL changes after weight loss (contributing independently to 14% of NGAL variance). In fact, weight loss significantly changed the circadian rhythm of NGAL. The acute increase in circulating NGAL after fat overload was significantly associated with fasting insulin (r=0.52, P

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)240-249
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2010


  • Fat overload
  • Insulin resistance
  • Lipocalin-2
  • Metabolic endotoxemia
  • Weight loss

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Medicine(all)


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