Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease in high-risk Italian hypertensive patients: The I-DEMAND study

Giovanna Leoncini, Francesca Viazzi, Enrico Agabiti Rosei, Ettore Ambrosioni, Francesco Vittorio Costa, Gastone Leonetti, Achille Cesare Pessina, Bruno Trimarco, Massimo Volpe, Giacomo Deferrari, Roberto Pontremoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background. Metabolic syndrome (MS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are well-known, independent predictors of increased cardiovascular risk. Both conditions are fairly prevalent in the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between MS or its individual components and CKD in an Italian population of hypertensive patients with normal or mildly to moderately impaired renal function under specialist care. Methods. A total of 2,916 patients (mean age 62 ± 11 years) among those enrolled in the I-DEMAND study were taken into consideration for this analysis. MS was defined according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. CKD was defined as an estimated GFR (abbreviated MDRD equation) 2 or as the presence of microalbuminuria (mean albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥2.5 mg/mmol in men and ≥3.5 mg/mmol in women). Results. MS was present in 59% of our study patients. The prevalence of microalbuminuria, reduced GFR and CKD was 26%, 25%, and 41%, respectively. Patients with MS had higher urinary albumin excretion (p

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)63-74
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Nephrology
Volume25
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2012

Keywords

  • Albuminuria
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Glomerular filtration rate
  • Hypertension
  • Metabolic syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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