Parathyroid glands are the main regulator of body mineral metabolism through parathormone (PTH) actions on bone and kidney. Experimental evidence suggests that PTH may have non-classical target organs such as adipose tissue, arterial vascular wall, cardiac muscle cells, and adrenal cortex cells, where it may play a role in controlling body energy, blood pressure, and metabolism. Cardiometabolic features have been investigated in the wide spectrum of clinical parathyroid disorders, from hyperparathyroidism to pseudohypoparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism. Indeed, in parathyroid disorders, besides altered PTH secretion, impaired serum calcium levels and vitamin D status occur. Both calcium and vitamin D have been shown to regulate metabolism and to be associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, despite the complexity of parathyroid disorders, features of metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and glucose intolerance, arterial blood hypertension, and dyslipidemia, are frequently diagnosed in primary and secondary hyperparathyroidism as well as in pseudohyperparathyroidism. Here, we reviewed the most consistent data highlighting challenges and providing clinical remarks.
- Metabolic Syndrome/etiology
- Parathyroid Diseases/complications
- Parathyroid Hormone/metabolism
- Vitamin D/metabolism