Metabolic syndrome predicts worse perioperative outcomes in patients treated with radical prostatectomy for non-metastatic prostate cancer

Stefano Luzzago, Carlotta Palumbo, Giuseppe Rosiello, Angela Pecoraro, Marina Deuker, Franziska Stolzenbach, Francesco Alessandro Mistretta, Zhe Tian, Gennaro Musi, Emanuele Montanari, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Fred Saad, Alberto Briganti, Ottavio de Cobelli, Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components (high blood pressure, BMI≥30, altered fasting glucose, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides) may undermine early perioperative outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP). We tested this hypothesis. Materials & methods: Within the National Inpatient Sample database (2008–2015) we identified RP patients. The effect of MetS was tested in four separate univariable analyses, as well as in multivariable regression models predicting: 1) overall complications, 2) length of stay, 3) total hospital charges and 4) non-home based discharge. All models were weighted and adjusted for clustering, as well as all available patient and hospital characteristics. Results: Of 91,618 patients: 1) 50.2% had high blood pressure, 2) 8.0% had BMI≥30, 3) 13.0% had altered fasting glucose, 4) 22.8% had high triglycerides and 5) 0.03% had low HDL cholesterol. Respectively, one vs. two vs. three vs. four MetS components were recorded in 36.2% vs. 19.0% vs. 5.5% vs. 0.8% patients. Of all patients, 6.3% exhibited ≥3 components and qualified for MetS diagnosis. The rates of MetS increased over time (EAPC:+9.8%; p < 0.001). All four tested MetS components (high blood pressure, BMI≥30, altered fasting glucose and high triglycerides) achieved independent predictor status in all four examined endpoints. Moreover, a highly statistically significant dose-response was also confirmed for all four tested endpoints. Conclusion: MetS and its components consistently and strongly predict early adverse outcomes after RP. Moreover, the strength of the effect was directly proportional to the number of MetS components exhibited by each individual patient, even if formal MetS diagnosis of ≥3 components has not been met.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101519
JournalSurgical Oncology
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • Altered fasting glucose
  • High blood pressure
  • High triglycerides
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • National inpatient sample
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oncology


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