There is a growing interest towards bone cements for use in vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty, as such spine procedures are becoming more and more common. Such cements feature different compositions, including both traditional acrylic cements and resorbable and bioactive materials. Due to the different compositions and intended use, the mechanical requirements of cements for spinal applications differ from those of traditional cements used in joint replacement. Because of the great clinical implications, it is very important to assess their long-term mechanical competence in terms of fatigue strength and creep. This paper aims at offering a critical overview of the methods currently adopted for such mechanical tests. The existing international standards and guidelines and the literature were searched for publications relevant to fatigue and creep of cements for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. While standard methods are available for traditional bone cements in general, no standard indicates specific methods or acceptance criteria for fatigue and creep of cements for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Similarly, a large number of papers were published on cements for joint replacements, but only few cover fatigue and creep of cements for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. Furthermore, the literature was analyzed to provide some indications of tests parameters and acceptance criteria (number of cycles, duration in time, stress levels, acceptable amount of creep) for possible tests specifically relevant to cements for spinal applications.
- Bone cements
- fatigue endurance
- in vitro biomechanical testing
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biomedical Engineering