The microbiology of acute and chronic rhinosinusitis has been extensively studied, but there are still some differences of view concerning the etiology of the former, and many disagreements regarding the microbiology of the latter. Establishing the concomitant distribution of the causative micro-organisms in cases that involve multiple sinuses is scientifically and practically important. The main problems are the variety of aerobes and anaerobes that may be involved, and the fact that different tracts of the sinuses of the same patient may be simultaneously affected. Rhinosinusitis may also involve the formation of biofilm, which may play a significant role in its pathogenesis and persistence. Biofilms have a number of advantages in terms of bacterial survival, and their perpetuation can create a certain degree of instability in host-bacteria interactions. Sinonasal microflora may further complicate pathogenesis and the identification of the pathogen(s) involved. Furthermore, the concentration, uniformity, and type/number of strains of nasal microbiota may vary from one site to another. The relative and total micro-organism counts can also be affected by various factors, and microbiota can modulate the course of both acute and chronic rhinosinusitis.