MicroRNAs and DNA-Damaging Drugs in Breast Cancer: Strength in Numbers

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs playing key roles in cancer. Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy worldwide and is categorized into four molecular subtypes: luminal A and B, HER2+ and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Despite the development of multiple targeted therapies for luminal and HER2+ breast tumors, TNBC lacks specific therapeutic approaches, thus they are treated mainly with radio- and chemotherapy. The effectiveness of these therapeutic regimens is based on their ability to induce DNA damage, which is differentially resolved and repaired by normal vs. cancer cells. Recently, drugs directly targeting DNA repair mechanisms, such as PARP inhibitors, have emerged as attractive candidates for the future molecular targeted-therapy in breast cancer. These compounds prevent cancer cells to appropriate repair DNA double strand breaks and induce a phenomenon called synthetic lethality, that results from the concurrent inhibition of PARP and the absence of functional BRCA genes which prompt cell death. MicroRNAs are relevant players in most of the biological processes including DNA damage repair mechanisms. Consistently, the downregulation of DNA repair genes by miRNAs have been probe to improve the therapeutic effect of genotoxic drugs. In this review, we discuss how microRNAs can sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging drugs, through the regulation of DNA repair genes, and examine the most recent findings on their possible use as a therapeutic tools of treatment response in breast cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)352
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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MicroRNAs
DNA Repair
Breast Neoplasms
DNA
Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Neoplasms
DNA Damage
Molecular Targeted Therapy
Genes
Biological Phenomena
Therapeutics
Small Untranslated RNA
Double-Stranded DNA Breaks
Drug and Narcotic Control
Therapeutic Uses
Drug Delivery Systems
Cell Death
Radiotherapy
Down-Regulation

Cite this

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title = "MicroRNAs and DNA-Damaging Drugs in Breast Cancer: Strength in Numbers",
abstract = "MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs playing key roles in cancer. Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy worldwide and is categorized into four molecular subtypes: luminal A and B, HER2+ and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Despite the development of multiple targeted therapies for luminal and HER2+ breast tumors, TNBC lacks specific therapeutic approaches, thus they are treated mainly with radio- and chemotherapy. The effectiveness of these therapeutic regimens is based on their ability to induce DNA damage, which is differentially resolved and repaired by normal vs. cancer cells. Recently, drugs directly targeting DNA repair mechanisms, such as PARP inhibitors, have emerged as attractive candidates for the future molecular targeted-therapy in breast cancer. These compounds prevent cancer cells to appropriate repair DNA double strand breaks and induce a phenomenon called synthetic lethality, that results from the concurrent inhibition of PARP and the absence of functional BRCA genes which prompt cell death. MicroRNAs are relevant players in most of the biological processes including DNA damage repair mechanisms. Consistently, the downregulation of DNA repair genes by miRNAs have been probe to improve the therapeutic effect of genotoxic drugs. In this review, we discuss how microRNAs can sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging drugs, through the regulation of DNA repair genes, and examine the most recent findings on their possible use as a therapeutic tools of treatment response in breast cancer.",
author = "Ilaria Plantamura and Giulia Cosentino and Alessandra Cataldo",
year = "2018",
doi = "10.3389/fonc.2018.00352",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
pages = "352",
journal = "Frontiers in Oncology",
issn = "2234-943X",
publisher = "Frontiers Media S. A.",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - MicroRNAs and DNA-Damaging Drugs in Breast Cancer

T2 - Strength in Numbers

AU - Plantamura, Ilaria

AU - Cosentino, Giulia

AU - Cataldo, Alessandra

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs playing key roles in cancer. Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy worldwide and is categorized into four molecular subtypes: luminal A and B, HER2+ and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Despite the development of multiple targeted therapies for luminal and HER2+ breast tumors, TNBC lacks specific therapeutic approaches, thus they are treated mainly with radio- and chemotherapy. The effectiveness of these therapeutic regimens is based on their ability to induce DNA damage, which is differentially resolved and repaired by normal vs. cancer cells. Recently, drugs directly targeting DNA repair mechanisms, such as PARP inhibitors, have emerged as attractive candidates for the future molecular targeted-therapy in breast cancer. These compounds prevent cancer cells to appropriate repair DNA double strand breaks and induce a phenomenon called synthetic lethality, that results from the concurrent inhibition of PARP and the absence of functional BRCA genes which prompt cell death. MicroRNAs are relevant players in most of the biological processes including DNA damage repair mechanisms. Consistently, the downregulation of DNA repair genes by miRNAs have been probe to improve the therapeutic effect of genotoxic drugs. In this review, we discuss how microRNAs can sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging drugs, through the regulation of DNA repair genes, and examine the most recent findings on their possible use as a therapeutic tools of treatment response in breast cancer.

AB - MicroRNAs are a class of small non-coding regulatory RNAs playing key roles in cancer. Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy worldwide and is categorized into four molecular subtypes: luminal A and B, HER2+ and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Despite the development of multiple targeted therapies for luminal and HER2+ breast tumors, TNBC lacks specific therapeutic approaches, thus they are treated mainly with radio- and chemotherapy. The effectiveness of these therapeutic regimens is based on their ability to induce DNA damage, which is differentially resolved and repaired by normal vs. cancer cells. Recently, drugs directly targeting DNA repair mechanisms, such as PARP inhibitors, have emerged as attractive candidates for the future molecular targeted-therapy in breast cancer. These compounds prevent cancer cells to appropriate repair DNA double strand breaks and induce a phenomenon called synthetic lethality, that results from the concurrent inhibition of PARP and the absence of functional BRCA genes which prompt cell death. MicroRNAs are relevant players in most of the biological processes including DNA damage repair mechanisms. Consistently, the downregulation of DNA repair genes by miRNAs have been probe to improve the therapeutic effect of genotoxic drugs. In this review, we discuss how microRNAs can sensitize cancer cells to DNA-damaging drugs, through the regulation of DNA repair genes, and examine the most recent findings on their possible use as a therapeutic tools of treatment response in breast cancer.

U2 - 10.3389/fonc.2018.00352

DO - 10.3389/fonc.2018.00352

M3 - Review article

C2 - 30234015

VL - 8

SP - 352

JO - Frontiers in Oncology

JF - Frontiers in Oncology

SN - 2234-943X

ER -