A modern approach to the midline congenital malformation of the brain should consider the recent acquisitions of experimental anatomy and embriology. About 40 years ago the famous neuropathologist PI Yakovlev already claimed that the mediobasal area of the embryonic prosencephalon is a pivotal area in the genesis of midline brain malformation. At present this statement can be sustained by the knowledge of the exact location of the future different midline brain structures in a human embryo of approximately 22-24 days of gestation. The adeno- and neuro-hypophysis, the hypothalamus, the chiasmatic and commissural plates, all lie in a close contiguity in the mediobasal area of the prosencephalic brain. A failure in the different steps of induction of this region could account for all the main midline brain anomalies such as holoprosencephaly, corpus callosum and septum pellucidum agenesis. In the most recent years new data about the genetic key to the cellular differentiation of the embryo has been achieved. The central nervous system of the embryo seems to differentiate by a process of segmentation and the mediobasal area of the embryonic prosencephalon could be considered as the more rostral segment of the central nervous system. Within the mediobasal region the different single areas such as chiasmatit plate or neurohypophysis could be comprised in different subsegments. Thus the failure in the induction of different segments and subsegments could be caused by some anomalies of the genes deputate to the induction to cellular differentiation.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||Rivista di Neuroradiologia|
|Publication status||Published - 1994|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology