BACKGROUND: Patients with an open ventricular septal defect (VSD) after repair of pulmonary atresia (PA), VSD, and major aortopulmonary collaterals (MAPCAs) are the most vulnerable subgroup. We analyzed the impact of concomitant versus delayed VSD closure on survival and intermediate-term right ventricular (RV) function.
METHODS: Between October 1996 and February 2017, 96 patients underwent a pulmonary flow study-aided repair of PA/VSD/MAPCAs. For patients who underwent either concomitant or delayed intracardiac repair, echocardiographic RV systolic function was retrospectively calculated to assess (1) RV fractional area change (RVFAC) and (2) two-dimensional RV longitudinal strain (RVLS) of the free wall of the right ventricle. QLAB cardiac analysis software version 10.3 (Philips Medical Systems, Andover, MA) was used for analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 64 patients underwent concomitant VSD closure at the time of unifocalization, and 16 patients underwent delayed VSD closure at a median of 2.3 years (range: 3 days to 7.4 years). At a median follow-up of 8.1 years (range: 0.1 to 19.5 years) for the concomitant repair group versus 7.4 years (range: 0.01 to 15.3 years) for the delayed repair group, no differences in RVFAC and RVLS were observed (RVFAC: 41.0% ± 6.2% versus 41.2% ± 7.6%, p = 0.91; RVLS: -18.7 ± 4.3 versus -18.9 ± 4.0, p = 0.87).
CONCLUSIONS: Patients (83%) with PA/VSD/MAPCAs underwent complete repair at intermediate-term follow-up with preserved RV function. Delayed VSD closure was accomplished in 50% of the patients initially deemed unsuitable for repair. Delayed VSD closure did not affect survival and did not portend impaired RV systolic function.