Migration of formaldehyde and melamine from melaware and other amino resin tableware in real life service

Veruscka Mannoni, Giorgio Padula, Oronzo Panico, Antonino Maggio, Claudio Arena, Maria Rosaria Milana

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The migration of formaldehyde and melamine monomers has been measured on 90 samples of plastic tableware in three different situations–new articles, already used articles and artificially aged articles–by using simulant, contact times and temperatures prescribed by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 10/2011. Formaldehyde was determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy analysis of the coloured complex obtained by reaction with chromotropic acid. Melamine was measured by an ultra high performance liquid chromatography method. Fourier Transformed–Infrared Analysis was applied to characterise the plastic. The results highlighted the presence of different amino resins based on formaldehyde-melamine, urea-formaldehyde or melamine-urea-formaldehyde with different migration behaviour. The migration of monomers was related to progressive degradation of the resins. Ageing studies demonstrated that the potential degradation of the resins and the consequent migration of the monomers may continue throughout the service life of the product. The specific migration limit (SML) of melamine was exceeded after ageing.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)113-125
Number of pages13
JournalFood Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2 2017


  • Food-contact materials
  • formaldehyde
  • melamine
  • migration
  • tableware

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Toxicology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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