To improve current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced cardioprotection in a rat model of mild exercise training, Sprague - Dawley rats were trained to run on a treadmill up to 55% of their maximal oxygen uptake for 1 h/day, 3 days/week, 14 weeks, with age-matched sedentary controls (n = 20/group). Rats were sacrificed 48 h after the last training session. Despite lack of cardiac hypertrophy, training decreased blood hemoglobin (7.94 ± 0.21 mM vs. 8.78 ± 0.23 mM, mean ± SE, P ± 0.01) and increased both plasma malondialdehyde (0.139 ± 0.005 mM vs. 0.085 ± 0.009 mM, P = 0.05) and the activity of Mn-superoxide dismutase (11.6 ± 0.6 vs. 16.5 ± 1.6 mU/μg, P = 0.01), whereas total superoxide dismutase activity was unaffected. When subjected to 30-min ischemia followed by 90-min reperfusion, hearts from trained rats (n = 5) displayed reduced infarct size as compared to controls (37.26 ± 0.92% vs. 49.09 ± 2.11% of risk area, P = 0.04). The biochemical analyses in the myocardium, which included gene expression profiles, real-time PCR, Western blot and determination of enzymatic activity, showed training-induced upregulation of the following mRNAs and/or proteins: growth-arrest and DNA-damage induced 153 (GADD153/ CHOP), heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), heat-shock protein 70/72 (HSP70/72), whereas heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) were decreased. As a whole, these data indicate that mild exercise training activates a second window of myocardial protection against ischemia/reperfusion by upregulating a number of protective genes, thereby warranting further investigation in man.
- Gene expression
- Oxidative stress
- Rat heart
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
- Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation