Conflicting results about alterations of plasma amino acid (AA) levels are reported in subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study aimed to provide more homogeneous AA profiles and correlations between AAs and cognitive tests. Venous plasma AAs were measured in 54 fasting patients with AD (37 males, 17 females; 74.63 ± 8.03 yrs; 3.2 ± 1.9 yrs from symptom onset). Seventeen matched subjects without neurodegenerative symptoms (NNDS) served as a control group (C-NNDS). Patients were tested for short-term verbal memory and attention capacity and stratified for nutritional state (Mini Nutritional Assessment, MNA). Compared to C-NNDS, patients exhibited lower plasma levels of aspartic acid and taurine (p < 0.0001) and higher 3-methylhistidine (p < 0.0001), which were independent of patients' MNA. In comparison to normonourished AD, the patients at risk of and with malnutrition showed a tendency towards lower ratios of Essential AAs/Total AAs, Branched-chain AAs/Total AAs, and Branched-chain AAs/Essential AAs. Serine and histidine were positively correlated with verbal memory and attention capacity deficits, respectively. Total AAs negatively correlated with attention capacity deficits. Stratifying patients with AD for MNA may identify a dual pattern of altered AAs, one due to AD per se and the other linked to nutritional state. Significant correlations were observed between several AAs and cognitive tests.