MiR-126-3p down-regulation contributes to dabrafenib acquired resistance in melanoma by up-regulating ADAM9 and VEGF-A

Simona Caporali, Adriana Amaro, Lauretta Levati, Ester Alvino, Pedro Miguel Lacal, Simona Mastroeni, Federica Ruffini, Laura Bonmassar, Gian Carlo Antonini Cappellini, Nadia Felli, Alessandra Carè, Ulrich Pfeffer, Stefania D'Atri

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Abstract

Background: Development of resistance to inhibitors of BRAF (BRAFi) and MEK (MEKi) remains a great challenge for targeted therapy in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma. Here, we explored the role of miRNAs in melanoma acquired resistance to BRAFi. Methods: miRNA expression in two BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines and their dabrafenib-resistant sublines was determined using Affymetrix GeneChip® miRNA 3.1 microarrays and/or qRT-PCR. The effects of miR-126-3p re-expression on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation, dabrafenib sensitivity, invasiveness and VEGF-A secretion were evaluated in the dabrafenib-resistant sublines using MTT assays, flow cytometry, immunoblotting, invasion assays in Boyden chambers and ELISA. ADAM9, PIK3R2, MMP7 and CXCR4 expression in the sensitive and dabrafenib-resistant cells was determined by immunoblotting. Small RNA interference was performed to investigate the consequence of VEGFA or ADAM9 silencing on proliferation, invasiveness or dabrafenib sensitivity of the resistant sublines. Long-term proliferation assays were carried out in dabrafenib-sensitive cells to assess the effects of enforced miR-126-3p expression or ADAM9 silencing on resistance development. VEGF-A serum levels in melanoma patients treated with BRAFi or BRAFi+MEKi were evaluated at baseline (T0), after two months of treatment (T2) and at progression (TP) by ELISA. Results: miR-126-3p was significantly down-regulated in the dabrafenib-resistant sublines as compared with their parental counterparts. miR-126-3p replacement in the drug-resistant cells inhibited proliferation, cell cycle progression, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and/or AKT, invasiveness, VEGF-A and ADAM9 expression, and increased dabrafenib sensitivity. VEGFA or ADAM9 silencing impaired proliferation and invasiveness of the drug-resistant sublines. ADAM9 knock-down in the resistant cells increased dabrafenib sensitivity, whereas miR-126-3p enforced expression or ADAM9 silencing in the drug-sensitive cells delayed the development of resistance. At T0 and T2, statistically significant differences were observed in VEGF-A serum levels between patients who responded to therapy and patients who did not. In responder patients, a significant increase of VEGF-A levels was observed at TP versus T2. Conclusions: Strategies restoring miR-126-3p expression or targeting VEGF-A or ADAM9 could restrain growth and metastasis of dabrafenib-resistant melanomas and increase their drug sensitivity. Circulating VEGF-A is a promising biomarker for predicting patients' response to BRAFi or BRAFi+MEKi and for monitoring the onset of resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number272
JournalJournal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research
Volume38
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 21 2019

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Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
Melanoma
Down-Regulation
MicroRNAs
Immunoblotting
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Cell Cycle
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Phosphorylation
dabrafenib
Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
RNA Interference
Serum
Flow Cytometry
Therapeutics
Biomarkers
Cell Proliferation
Apoptosis
Neoplasm Metastasis
Cell Line

Keywords

  • acquired resistance
  • BRAF inhibitors
  • invasiveness
  • melanoma
  • miR-126-3p
  • proliferation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

@article{3ac5c49be4ea4cca90d04403ad12ec0d,
title = "MiR-126-3p down-regulation contributes to dabrafenib acquired resistance in melanoma by up-regulating ADAM9 and VEGF-A",
abstract = "Background: Development of resistance to inhibitors of BRAF (BRAFi) and MEK (MEKi) remains a great challenge for targeted therapy in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma. Here, we explored the role of miRNAs in melanoma acquired resistance to BRAFi. Methods: miRNA expression in two BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines and their dabrafenib-resistant sublines was determined using Affymetrix GeneChip{\circledR} miRNA 3.1 microarrays and/or qRT-PCR. The effects of miR-126-3p re-expression on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation, dabrafenib sensitivity, invasiveness and VEGF-A secretion were evaluated in the dabrafenib-resistant sublines using MTT assays, flow cytometry, immunoblotting, invasion assays in Boyden chambers and ELISA. ADAM9, PIK3R2, MMP7 and CXCR4 expression in the sensitive and dabrafenib-resistant cells was determined by immunoblotting. Small RNA interference was performed to investigate the consequence of VEGFA or ADAM9 silencing on proliferation, invasiveness or dabrafenib sensitivity of the resistant sublines. Long-term proliferation assays were carried out in dabrafenib-sensitive cells to assess the effects of enforced miR-126-3p expression or ADAM9 silencing on resistance development. VEGF-A serum levels in melanoma patients treated with BRAFi or BRAFi+MEKi were evaluated at baseline (T0), after two months of treatment (T2) and at progression (TP) by ELISA. Results: miR-126-3p was significantly down-regulated in the dabrafenib-resistant sublines as compared with their parental counterparts. miR-126-3p replacement in the drug-resistant cells inhibited proliferation, cell cycle progression, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and/or AKT, invasiveness, VEGF-A and ADAM9 expression, and increased dabrafenib sensitivity. VEGFA or ADAM9 silencing impaired proliferation and invasiveness of the drug-resistant sublines. ADAM9 knock-down in the resistant cells increased dabrafenib sensitivity, whereas miR-126-3p enforced expression or ADAM9 silencing in the drug-sensitive cells delayed the development of resistance. At T0 and T2, statistically significant differences were observed in VEGF-A serum levels between patients who responded to therapy and patients who did not. In responder patients, a significant increase of VEGF-A levels was observed at TP versus T2. Conclusions: Strategies restoring miR-126-3p expression or targeting VEGF-A or ADAM9 could restrain growth and metastasis of dabrafenib-resistant melanomas and increase their drug sensitivity. Circulating VEGF-A is a promising biomarker for predicting patients' response to BRAFi or BRAFi+MEKi and for monitoring the onset of resistance.",
keywords = "acquired resistance, BRAF inhibitors, invasiveness, melanoma, miR-126-3p, proliferation",
author = "Simona Caporali and Adriana Amaro and Lauretta Levati and Ester Alvino and Lacal, {Pedro Miguel} and Simona Mastroeni and Federica Ruffini and Laura Bonmassar and {Antonini Cappellini}, {Gian Carlo} and Nadia Felli and Alessandra Car{\`e} and Ulrich Pfeffer and Stefania D'Atri",
year = "2019",
month = "6",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1186/s13046-019-1238-4",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
journal = "Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research",
issn = "0392-9078",
publisher = "BioMed Central Ltd.",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - MiR-126-3p down-regulation contributes to dabrafenib acquired resistance in melanoma by up-regulating ADAM9 and VEGF-A

AU - Caporali, Simona

AU - Amaro, Adriana

AU - Levati, Lauretta

AU - Alvino, Ester

AU - Lacal, Pedro Miguel

AU - Mastroeni, Simona

AU - Ruffini, Federica

AU - Bonmassar, Laura

AU - Antonini Cappellini, Gian Carlo

AU - Felli, Nadia

AU - Carè, Alessandra

AU - Pfeffer, Ulrich

AU - D'Atri, Stefania

PY - 2019/6/21

Y1 - 2019/6/21

N2 - Background: Development of resistance to inhibitors of BRAF (BRAFi) and MEK (MEKi) remains a great challenge for targeted therapy in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma. Here, we explored the role of miRNAs in melanoma acquired resistance to BRAFi. Methods: miRNA expression in two BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines and their dabrafenib-resistant sublines was determined using Affymetrix GeneChip® miRNA 3.1 microarrays and/or qRT-PCR. The effects of miR-126-3p re-expression on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation, dabrafenib sensitivity, invasiveness and VEGF-A secretion were evaluated in the dabrafenib-resistant sublines using MTT assays, flow cytometry, immunoblotting, invasion assays in Boyden chambers and ELISA. ADAM9, PIK3R2, MMP7 and CXCR4 expression in the sensitive and dabrafenib-resistant cells was determined by immunoblotting. Small RNA interference was performed to investigate the consequence of VEGFA or ADAM9 silencing on proliferation, invasiveness or dabrafenib sensitivity of the resistant sublines. Long-term proliferation assays were carried out in dabrafenib-sensitive cells to assess the effects of enforced miR-126-3p expression or ADAM9 silencing on resistance development. VEGF-A serum levels in melanoma patients treated with BRAFi or BRAFi+MEKi were evaluated at baseline (T0), after two months of treatment (T2) and at progression (TP) by ELISA. Results: miR-126-3p was significantly down-regulated in the dabrafenib-resistant sublines as compared with their parental counterparts. miR-126-3p replacement in the drug-resistant cells inhibited proliferation, cell cycle progression, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and/or AKT, invasiveness, VEGF-A and ADAM9 expression, and increased dabrafenib sensitivity. VEGFA or ADAM9 silencing impaired proliferation and invasiveness of the drug-resistant sublines. ADAM9 knock-down in the resistant cells increased dabrafenib sensitivity, whereas miR-126-3p enforced expression or ADAM9 silencing in the drug-sensitive cells delayed the development of resistance. At T0 and T2, statistically significant differences were observed in VEGF-A serum levels between patients who responded to therapy and patients who did not. In responder patients, a significant increase of VEGF-A levels was observed at TP versus T2. Conclusions: Strategies restoring miR-126-3p expression or targeting VEGF-A or ADAM9 could restrain growth and metastasis of dabrafenib-resistant melanomas and increase their drug sensitivity. Circulating VEGF-A is a promising biomarker for predicting patients' response to BRAFi or BRAFi+MEKi and for monitoring the onset of resistance.

AB - Background: Development of resistance to inhibitors of BRAF (BRAFi) and MEK (MEKi) remains a great challenge for targeted therapy in patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma. Here, we explored the role of miRNAs in melanoma acquired resistance to BRAFi. Methods: miRNA expression in two BRAF-mutant melanoma cell lines and their dabrafenib-resistant sublines was determined using Affymetrix GeneChip® miRNA 3.1 microarrays and/or qRT-PCR. The effects of miR-126-3p re-expression on proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation, dabrafenib sensitivity, invasiveness and VEGF-A secretion were evaluated in the dabrafenib-resistant sublines using MTT assays, flow cytometry, immunoblotting, invasion assays in Boyden chambers and ELISA. ADAM9, PIK3R2, MMP7 and CXCR4 expression in the sensitive and dabrafenib-resistant cells was determined by immunoblotting. Small RNA interference was performed to investigate the consequence of VEGFA or ADAM9 silencing on proliferation, invasiveness or dabrafenib sensitivity of the resistant sublines. Long-term proliferation assays were carried out in dabrafenib-sensitive cells to assess the effects of enforced miR-126-3p expression or ADAM9 silencing on resistance development. VEGF-A serum levels in melanoma patients treated with BRAFi or BRAFi+MEKi were evaluated at baseline (T0), after two months of treatment (T2) and at progression (TP) by ELISA. Results: miR-126-3p was significantly down-regulated in the dabrafenib-resistant sublines as compared with their parental counterparts. miR-126-3p replacement in the drug-resistant cells inhibited proliferation, cell cycle progression, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and/or AKT, invasiveness, VEGF-A and ADAM9 expression, and increased dabrafenib sensitivity. VEGFA or ADAM9 silencing impaired proliferation and invasiveness of the drug-resistant sublines. ADAM9 knock-down in the resistant cells increased dabrafenib sensitivity, whereas miR-126-3p enforced expression or ADAM9 silencing in the drug-sensitive cells delayed the development of resistance. At T0 and T2, statistically significant differences were observed in VEGF-A serum levels between patients who responded to therapy and patients who did not. In responder patients, a significant increase of VEGF-A levels was observed at TP versus T2. Conclusions: Strategies restoring miR-126-3p expression or targeting VEGF-A or ADAM9 could restrain growth and metastasis of dabrafenib-resistant melanomas and increase their drug sensitivity. Circulating VEGF-A is a promising biomarker for predicting patients' response to BRAFi or BRAFi+MEKi and for monitoring the onset of resistance.

KW - acquired resistance

KW - BRAF inhibitors

KW - invasiveness

KW - melanoma

KW - miR-126-3p

KW - proliferation

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U2 - 10.1186/s13046-019-1238-4

DO - 10.1186/s13046-019-1238-4

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VL - 38

JO - Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research

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