Therapies based on circulating proangiogenic cells (PACs) have shown promise in ischemic disease models but require further optimization to reach the bedside. Ischemia-associated hypoxia robustly increases microRNA-210 (miR-210) expression in several cell types, including endothelial cells (ECs). In ECs, miR-210 represses EphrinA3 (EFNA3), inducing proangiogenic responses. This study provides new mechanistic evidences for a role of miR-210 in PACs. PACs were obtained from either adult peripheral blood or cord blood. miR-210 expression was modulated with either an inhibitory complementary oligonucleotide (anti-miR-210) or a miRNA mimic (pre-miR-210). Scramble and absence of transfection served as controls. As expected, hypoxia increased miR-210 in PACs. In vivo, migration toward and adhesion to the ischemic endothelium facilitate the proangiogenic actions of transplanted PACs. In vitro, PAC migration toward SDF-1α/CXCL12 was impaired by anti-miR-210 and enhanced by pre-miR-210. Moreover, pre-miR-210 increased PAC adhesion to ECs and supported angiogenic responses in co-cultured ECs. These responses were not associated with changes in extracellular miR-210 and were abrogated by lentivirus-mediated EFNA3 overexpression. Finally, ex-vivo pre-miR-210 transfection predisposed PACs to induce post-ischemic therapeutic neovascularization and blood flow recovery in an immunodeficient mouse limb ischemia model. In conclusion, miR-210 modulates PAC functions and improves their therapeutic potential in limb ischemia.