Small extracellular vesicles (EVs) are able to pass from the central nervous system (CNS) into peripheral blood and contain molecule markers of their parental origin. The aim of our study was to isolate and characterize total and neural-derived small EVs (NDEVs) and their micro RNA (miRNA) cargo in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Small NDEVs were isolated from plasma in a population consisting of 40 AD patients and 40 healthy subjects (CTRLs) using high throughput Advanced TaqMan miRNA OpenArrays®, which enables the simultaneous determination of 754 miRNAs. MiR-23a-3p, miR-223-3p, miR-100-3p and miR-190-5p showed a significant dysregulation in small NDEVs from AD patients as compared with controls (1.16 ± 0.49 versus 7.54 ± 2.5, p = 0.026; 9.32 ± 2.27 versus 0.66 ± 0.18, p <0.0001; 0.069 ± 0.01 versus 0.5 ± 0.1, p < 0.0001 and 2.9 ± 1.2 versus 1.93 ± 0.9, p < 0.05, respectively). A further validation analysis confirmed that miR-23a-3p, miR-223-3p and miR-190a-5p levels in small NDEVs from AD patients were significantly upregulated as compared with controls (p = 0.008; p = 0.016; p = 0.003, respectively) whereas miR-100-3p levels were significantly downregulated (p = 0.008). This is the first study that carries out the comparison between total plasma small EV population and NDEVs, demonstrating the presence of a specific AD NDEV miRNA signature.
- Alzheimer’s disease
- extracellular vesicles (EVs)
- neural-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs)