Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent primary malignant tumor of bone in humans and animals. Comparative oncology is a field of study that examines the cancer risk and tumor progression across the species. The canine model is ideally suited for translational cancer research. The biological and clinical characteristics of human and canine OS are common to hypothesize as that several living and environmental common conditions shared between the two species can influence some etiopathogenetic mechanisms, for which the canine species represents an important model of comparison with the human species. In the canine and human species, osteosarcoma is the tumor of bone with the highest frequency, with a value of about 80-85% (in respect to all other bone tumors), a high degree of invasiveness, and a high rate of metastasis and malignancy. Humans and dogs have many genetic and biomolecular similarities such as alterations in the expression of p53 and in some types of microRNAs that our working group has already described previously in several separate works. In this paper, we report and collect new comparative biomolecular features of osteosarcoma in dogs and humans, which may represent an innovative update on the biomolecular profile of this tumor.
- comparative oncology