Mitochondrial DNA: Impacting central and peripheral nervous systems

Valerio Carelli, David C. Chan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Because of their high-energy metabolism, neurons are strictly dependent on mitochondria, which generate cellular ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. The mitochondrial genome encodes for critical components of the oxidative phosphorylation pathway machinery, and therefore, mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cause energy production defects that frequently have severe neurological manifestations. Here, we review the principles of mitochondrial genetics and focus on prototypical mitochondrial diseases to illustrate how primary defects in mtDNA or secondary defects in mtDNA due to nuclear genome mutations can cause prominent neurological and multisystem features. In addition, we discuss the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mitochondrial diseases, the cellular mechanisms that protect mitochondrial integrity, and the prospects for therapy. The nervous system relies on mitochondrial metabolism to drive energy-consuming processes. Carelli and Chan illustrate how defects in mitochondrial DNA lead to neurological dysfunction and discuss how research in mitochondrial biology can unravel pathogenic mechanisms and translate into therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1126-1142
Number of pages17
JournalNeuron
Volume84
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 17 2014

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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