In a cohort of β-Thalassemia (β-Thal) transplanted with haploidentical-HSCT we identified one transplanted patient characterized by persistent mixed chimerism (PMC) for several months after HSCT. In this unique β-Thal patient we assessed the donor engraftment overtime after transplantation, the potential loss of the non-shared HLA haplotype, and the presence of CD49b+LAG-3+ T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells, previously demonstrated to be associated with PMC after HLA-related HSCT for β-Thal. The majority of the patient's erythrocytes were of donor origin, whereas T cells were initially mostly derived from the recipient, no HLA loss, but an increased frequency of circulating Tr1 cells were observed. For the first time, we showed that when the proportion of residual donor cells decreases, the frequency of CD49b+LAG-3+ Tr1 cells declines, reaching the levels present in healthy subjects. These findings confirm previous results obtained in transplant related settings for β-Thal, and supported the central role of Tr1 cells in promoting and maintaining PMC after allo-HSCT.
- Haploidentical HSCT
- mixed chimerism
- T regulatory type 1 (Tr1) cells
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
- Molecular Biology