Mixed Consistencies in Dysphagic Patients: A Myth to Dispel

Mozzanica Francesco, Pizzorni Nicole, Scarponi Letizia, Bazzotti Claudia, Ginocchio Daniela, Schindler Antonio

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Only limited and inconsistent information about the effect of mixed consistencies on swallowing are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the location of the head of the bolus at the swallow onset, the risk of penetration/aspiration, and the severity of post-swallow pharyngeal residue in patients with dysphagia when consuming mixed consistencies. 20 dysphagic patients underwent a Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES) testing five different textures: liquid, semisolid, solid, biscuits-with-milk and vegetable-soup. The location of the head of the bolus at the onset of swallowing was rated using a five-points scale ranging from zero (the bolus is behind the tongue) to four (the bolus falls into the laryngeal vestibule), the severity of penetration/aspiration was rated using the Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS), the amount of pharyngeal residue after the swallow was rated using the Yale Pharyngeal Residue Severity Rating Scale (YPRSRS) in the vallecula and pyriform sinus. When consuming biscuits-with-milk and liquid the swallow onset occurred more often when the boluses were located in the laryngeal vestibule. Penetration was more frequent with biscuits-with-milk, while aspiration was more frequent with Liquid, followed by biscuits-with-milk and vegetable-soup, Semisolid and Solid. In particular, no differences in penetration and aspiration between liquids and biscuits-with-milk were found as well as among vegetable-soup, semisolid and solid. No significant differences in the amount of food residue after swallowing were demonstrated. The risk of penetration-aspiration for biscuits-with-milk and liquid is similar, while the risk of penetration-aspiration is lower for vegetable-soup than for liquid.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Feb 2021


  • Deglutition
  • Deglutition disorders
  • Dysphagia
  • FEES
  • Mixed consistencies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Speech and Hearing


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