Mixed depressive states: Nosologic and therapeutic issues

Athanasios Koukopoulos, Matthew J. Albert, Gabriele Sani, Alexia E. Koukopoulos, Paolo Girardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This paper focuses on the clinical importance of affective mixed states with special attention given to agitated depression, which has lost its status as a mixed state in the DSM and ICD systems. Following a historical review of the topic, the psychopathological elements are examined. Psychic and motor agitation are considered equally important for the definition of agitated depression and the concept of latent agitated depression is introduced for those major depressive episodes that become agitated following antidepressant treatment. The thesis is advanced that the erroneous nosologic position of agitated depression and its treatment as simple, unipolar depression is at least partly responsible for the problematic issues of the unfavourable treatment outcome and high suicide rates among depressive patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-37
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Review of Psychiatry
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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