Modeling the structure of the triarchic psychopathy measure: Conceptual, empirical, and analytic considerations

Antonella Somma, Serena Borroni, Laura E. Drislane, Christopher J. Patrick, Andrea Fossati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


This study sought to characterize the factor structure of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) using data from a sample of 1,082 communitydwelling Italian adults. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) was used to compare the fit of a bifactor model for each TriPM scale, in which specific-content factors were specified along with a general factor, with the fit of a single, general-factor model. Robust weighted least square (WLSMV) ESEM supported a bifactor latent structure of the TriPM items for all individual scales. When we jointly factor analyzed the 58 TriPM items, a WLSMV ESEM three-factor structure showed adequate fit; the three ESEM factors were akin to TriPM Boldness, Meanness, and Disinhibition theoretical dimensions, respectively, and could be effectively replicated across gender subgroups. Our findings support the three-factor structure of TriPM items, at least in Italian community-dwelling adults, and provide further evidence for the construct validity of the TriPM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)470-496
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Personality Disorders
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2019


  • Bifactor models
  • Exploratory structural equation modeling
  • Psychopathy
  • Triarchic model
  • Triarchic psychopathy measure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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