Modulation of Neuroinflammation in the Central Nervous System: Role of Chemokines and Sphingolipids

Roberta Gualtierotti, Laura Guarnaccia, Matteo Beretta, Stefania E. Navone, Rolando Campanella, Laura Riboni, Paolo Rampini, Giovanni Marfia

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

Neuroinflammation is a process involved in the pathogenesis of different disorders, both autoimmune, such as neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, and degenerative, such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. In the central nervous system, the local milieu is tightly regulated by different mediators, among which are chemoattractant cytokines, also known as chemokines. These small molecules are able to modulate trafficking of immune cells in the course of nervous system development or in response to tissue damage, and different patterns of chemokine molecule and receptor expression have been described in several neuroinflammatory disorders. In recent years, a number of studies have highlighted a pivotal role of sphingolipids in regulating neuroinflammation. Sphingolipids have different functions, among which are the control of leukocyte egress from lymphonodes into inflamed tissues, the expression of various mediators of inflammation and a direct effect on the cells of the central nervous system as regulators of neuroinflammation. In the future, a better knowledge of these two groups of mediators could provide insight into the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory disorders and could help develop novel diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)396-420
Number of pages25
JournalAdvances in Therapy
Volume34
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2017

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Keywords

  • Alzheimer
  • Chemokines
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Parkinson
  • Sphingolipids
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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