Pulmonary immunological tolerance to inhaled particulates might create a permissive milieu for lung metastasis. Lung microbiota contribute to pulmonary tolerance; here, we explored whether its manipulation via antibiotic or probiotic aerosolization favors immune response against melanoma metastasis. In lungs of vancomycin/neomycin-aerosolized mice, a decrease in bacterial load was associated with reduced regulatory T cells and enhanced T cell and NK cell activation that paralleled a significant reduction of melanoma B16 lung metastases. Reduction of metastases also occurred in lungs transplanted with bacterial isolates from antibiotic-treated lungs. Aerosolized Lactobacillus rhamnosus strongly promoted immunity against B16 lung metastases as well. Furthermore, probiotics or antibiotics improved chemotherapy activity against advanced B16 metastases. Thus, we identify a role for lung microbiota in metastasis and show that its targeting via aerosolization is a therapy that can prevent metastases and enhance responses to chemotherapy.