The identification of the optimal cancer treatment has become progressively more intricate for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients due to the multitude of options available. The testing of biomarkers to predict clinical responses to therapies is pivotal to stratify the patients based on the molecular features of their tumors. The number of actionable genetic alterations to be tested is increasing together with the comprehension of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor growth and development. The possibility of using next generation sequencing-based approaches enhanced the acquisition of genetic data with potential clinical usefulness, and favored the integration of precision medicine in clinical practice. The availability of targeted sequencing panels that cover genetic alterations in hundreds of genes allows the performance of a comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP) of lung tumors. However, different issues still need to be solved, from the tissue needed for next generation sequencing analysis, to the choice of the test and its interpretation in the clinical context. This position paper from the Italian Association of Thoracic Oncology (AIOT) summarizes the results of a discussion from a Precision Medicine Panel meeting on the challenges to bringing CGP and, therefore, precision medicine into the daily clinical practice.