Molecular and structural aspects of clinically relevant mutations related to the approved non-nucleoside inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase

Stefano Alcaro, Claudia Alteri, Anna Artese, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Giosu Costa, Francesco Ortuso, Lucia Parrotta, Carlo Federico Perno, Valentina Svicher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

In recent years relevant progress has been made in the treatment of HIV-1 with a consequent decrease in mortality. The availability of potent antiretroviral drugs and the ability of viral load assays that accurately evaluate the true level of viral replication, have led to a better understanding of pathogenesis of the disease and how to obtain improved therapeutic profiles. The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), based on a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs, has radically changed the clinical outcome of HIV. In particular, reverse transcriptase non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNRTIs) play an essential role in most protocols and are often used in first line treatment. The high specificity of these inhibitors towards HIV-1 has increased the number of structural and molecular modeling studies of enzyme complexes and that have led to chemical syntheses of more selective second and third-generation NNRTIs. However, a considerable percentage of new HIV-1 infections are caused by the emergence of drug-resistant mutant viruses that complicate treatment strategies. In this review we discuss relevant clinical and structural aspects for the management of antiretroviral drug resistance, with detailed explanations of mechanisms and mutation patterns useful to better understand the relation between drug resistance and therapy failure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)141-149
Number of pages9
JournalDrug Resistance Updates
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2011

Keywords

  • HAART
  • HIV-1
  • NNRTIs
  • Resistance
  • Reverse transcriptase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Oncology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology

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