Background: Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an under-diagnosed hereditary disorder characterized by reduced serum levels of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) and increased risk to develop lung and liver diseases at an early age. AAT is encoded by the highly polymorphic SERPINA1 gene. The most common deficiency alleles are S and Z, but more than 150 rare variants lead to low levels of the protein. To identify these pathological allelic variants, sequencing is required. Since traditional sequencing is expensive and time-consuming, we evaluated the accuracy of A1AT Genotyping Test, a new diagnostic genotyping kit which allows to simultaneously identify and genotype 14 deficiency variants of the SERPINA1 gene based on Luminex technology. Methods: A total of 418 consecutive samples with AATD suspicion and submitted to the Italian Reference laboratory between January and April 2016 were analyzed both by applying the diagnostic algorithm currently in use, and by applying A1AT Genotyping Test. Results: The assay gave the following results: 101 samples (24.2%) were positive for at least one of the 14 deficiency variants, 316 (75.6%) were negative for all the variants analyzed. The identified mutations showed a 100% correlation with the results obtained with our diagnostic algorithm. Seventeen samples (4%) resulted negative for the assay but sequencing identified other rare pathological variants in SERPINA1 gene. Conclusion: The A1AT Genotyping Test assay was highly reliable and robust and allowed shorter diagnostic times. In few cases, it has been necessary to sequence the SERPINA1 gene to identify other rare mutations not included in the kit.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Medical Laboratory Technology
- Biochemistry, medical
- Microbiology (medical)