In the last decade, several radiopharmaceuticals have been developed and investigated for imaging in vivo of pediatric brain tumors with the aim of exploring peculiar metabolic processes as glucose consumption, amino-acid metabolism, and protein synthesis with nuclear medicine techniques. Although the clinical shreds of evidence are limited, preliminary results are encouraging. In this review, we performed web-based and desktop research summarizing the most relevant findings of the literature published to date on this topic. Particular attention was given to the wide spectrum of nuclear medicine advances and trends in pediatric neurooncology and neurosurgery. Furthermore, the role of somatostatin receptor imaging through single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) probes, with reference to their potential therapeutic implications, was examined in the peculiar context. Preliminary results show that functional imaging in pediatric brain tumors might lead to significant improvements in terms of diagnostic accuracy and it could be of help in the management of the disease.