Molecular research technologies in mitochondrial diseases: The microarray approach

Marco Crimi, Sean F. O'Hearn, Douglas C. Wallace, Giacomo P. Comi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Mitochondria are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells where they generate much of the cellular energy by the process of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The approximately 1500 genes of the mitochondrial genome are distributed between the cytoplasmic, maternally-inherited, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) which encodes 37 genes and the nuclear DNA (nDNA) which encompasses the remaining mitochondrial genes. The interplay between the mtDNA and nDNA encoded mitochondrial genes and their role in mitochondrial disorders is still largely unclear. One approach for elucidating the pathophysiology of mitochondrial diseases has been to look at changes in the expression of mtDNA and nDNA-encoded genes in response to specific mitochondrial genetic defects. Initial studies of gene expression changes in response to mtDNA defect employed blot technologies to analyze changes in the expression of individual genes one at a time. While Southern/Northern blot experiments confirmed the importance of nDNA-mtDNA interactions in the pathophysiology of mitochondrial myopathy, the methodology used limited the number of genes that could be analyzed from each patient. This barrier has been overcome, in part by the advent of DNA microarray technology. In DNA microarrays gene sequences or oligonucleotides homologous to gene sequences are arrayed on a solid support. The RNA from the subject is then isolated, the mRNA converted to cDNA and the cDNA labeled with a fluorescent probe. The labeled cDNA is hybridized on the microarray and the fluorescence bound to each array is then quantified. Recently, these technologies have been applied to mitochondrial disease patient tissues and the presence of coordinate changes in mitochondrial gene expression confirmed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)811-818
Number of pages8
JournalIUBMB Life
Volume57
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2005

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Keywords

  • Heteroplosmy
  • Microarray
  • Mitochondrial diseases
  • mtDNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Genetics
  • Molecular Biology

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