Monkeypox — Enhancing public health preparedness for an emerging lethal human zoonotic epidemic threat in the wake of the smallpox post-eradication era

Eskild Petersen, Ibrahim Abubakar, Chikwe Ihekweazu, David Heymann, Francine Ntoumi, Lucille Blumberg, Danny Asogun, Victor Mukonka, Swaib Abubaker Lule, Matthew Bates, Isobella Honeyborne, Sayoki Mfinanga, Peter Mwaba, Osman Dar, Francesco Vairo, Maowia Mukhtar, Richard Kock, Tim McHugh, Giuseppe Ippolito, Alimuddin Zumla

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorial

Abstract

The identification of monkeypox in 3 separate patients in the United Kingdom in September raised media and political attention on an emerging public health threat. Nigeria, whose last confirmed case of monkeypox was in 1978, is currently experiencing an unusually large and outbreak of human monkeypox cases, a ‘One Human-Environmental-Animal Health’ approach is being effectively used to define and tackle the outbreak. As of 13th October 2018, there have been one hundred and sixteen confirmed cases the majority of whom are under 40 years. Over the past 20 years ten Central and West African countries have reported monkeypox cases which have risen exponentially. We review the history and evolution of monkeypox outbreaks in Africa and USA, the changing clinical presentations, and discuss possible factors underlying the increasing numbers being detected including the cessation of smallpox vaccination programs. Major knowledge gaps remain on the epidemiology, host reservoir, and emergence, transmission, pathogenesis and prevention of monkeypoz.

Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - Nov 16 2018

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Monkeypox
Smallpox
Zoonoses
Public Health
Disease Outbreaks
Environmental Health
Nigeria
Vaccination
Epidemiology
History

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Monkeypox — Enhancing public health preparedness for an emerging lethal human zoonotic epidemic threat in the wake of the smallpox post-eradication era. / Petersen, Eskild; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Ihekweazu, Chikwe; Heymann, David; Ntoumi, Francine; Blumberg, Lucille; Asogun, Danny; Mukonka, Victor; Lule, Swaib Abubaker; Bates, Matthew; Honeyborne, Isobella; Mfinanga, Sayoki; Mwaba, Peter; Dar, Osman; Vairo, Francesco; Mukhtar, Maowia; Kock, Richard; McHugh, Tim; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Zumla, Alimuddin.

In: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 16.11.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalEditorial

Petersen, E, Abubakar, I, Ihekweazu, C, Heymann, D, Ntoumi, F, Blumberg, L, Asogun, D, Mukonka, V, Lule, SA, Bates, M, Honeyborne, I, Mfinanga, S, Mwaba, P, Dar, O, Vairo, F, Mukhtar, M, Kock, R, McHugh, T, Ippolito, G & Zumla, A 2018, 'Monkeypox — Enhancing public health preparedness for an emerging lethal human zoonotic epidemic threat in the wake of the smallpox post-eradication era', International Journal of Infectious Diseases. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2018.11.008
Petersen, Eskild ; Abubakar, Ibrahim ; Ihekweazu, Chikwe ; Heymann, David ; Ntoumi, Francine ; Blumberg, Lucille ; Asogun, Danny ; Mukonka, Victor ; Lule, Swaib Abubaker ; Bates, Matthew ; Honeyborne, Isobella ; Mfinanga, Sayoki ; Mwaba, Peter ; Dar, Osman ; Vairo, Francesco ; Mukhtar, Maowia ; Kock, Richard ; McHugh, Tim ; Ippolito, Giuseppe ; Zumla, Alimuddin. / Monkeypox — Enhancing public health preparedness for an emerging lethal human zoonotic epidemic threat in the wake of the smallpox post-eradication era. In: International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2018.
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