OBJECTIVES: This Monograph aims to provide the scientific community and the Regional Healthcare Service an up-to-date Atlas of mortality for the Campania Region (Southern Italy). The Atlas shows an overview of mortality through comparisons with national data and with intraregional macroareas. Maps presenting risk measures with municipal details are also provided.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both overall and cause-specific mortality data for the period 2006-2014 referred to people residing in Campania Region are analysed in this Atlas. Twenty-nine death causes (major causes and specific cancers) are studied; for each of them, it has been provided: • direct standardised rates (standard population EU 2013) referred to Italy, Campania Region, and the seven regional Local Health Units (LHUs); • standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), estimated on a regional basis, referred to every LHU; • years of life lost (number and rate) both on a regional and on LHU basis; • mortality rate trends for the period 2006-2014, including annual percentage changes (APCs) for Italy, Campania Region, and every LHU; • for every death cause, regional maps are provided also with municipal details for Relative Risks (RRs) and risk posterior probabilities (PPs) estimated through a Bayesian hierarchical model. Risk estimates are presented both crude and adjusted by socioeconomic deprivation index resulted from the 2011 Census of the Italian National Institute fo Statistics.
RESULTS: In Campania Region, standardised mortality ratios (per 100,000; IC95%) higher than the national average have been recorded for the following causes: all causes of death: M: 1,233.3 (IC95% 1,227.9-1,238.9) vs 1,093.8 (IC95% 1,092.5-1,095.1); F: 826.1 (IC95% 822.6-829.7) vs 722.8 (IC95% 721.9-732.6); digestive system diseases: M: 51.2 (IC95% 50.2-52.3) vs 44.2 (IC95% 44.0-44.5); F: 35.8 (IC95% 35.1-36.6) vs 29,2 (IC95% 29.0-29.4); circulatory system diseases: M: 493.1 (IC95% 489.6-496.8) vs 404.3 (IC95% 403.5-405.1); F: 388.5 (IC95% 386.1-390.9) vs 296.5 (IC95% 295.9-297.0); genitourinary system diseases: M: 27.2 (IC95% 26.4-28.1) vs 21.9- (IC95% 21.7-22.1); F: 18.2 (IC95% 17.7-18.7) vs 13.7- (IC95% 13.5-13.8); endocrine and metabolic diseases: M: 60.0 (IC95% 58.8-61.2) vs 43.8 (IC95% 43.5-44.0); F: 60.7 (IC95% 59.8-61.7) vs 36.6 (IC95% 36.4-36.8); myocardial infarction: M: 71.1 (IC95% 69.8-72.4) vs 60.9 (IC95% 60.6-61.2); F: 38.2 (IC95% 37.4-39.0) vs 30.2-(IC95% 30.0-30.4); diabetes: M: 52.6 (IC95% 51.5-53.8) vs 35.1 (IC95% 34.9-35.3); F: 53.8 (IC95% 52.9-54.7) vs 28.6 (IC95% 28.4-28.8). On the other hand, mortality rates comparable to or lower than the national average are observed for the remaining causes of death, with different differences for gender. Mortality for cancer causes in Campania Region presents rates higher than the rates observed at national level in males for the following causes: all cancers: 380.4 (IC95% 377.5-383.3) vs 356.5 (IC95% 355.8-357.2); lung cancer: 112.5 (IC95% 110.9/114.0) vs 93.0 (IC95% 92.6-93.3);larynx cancer: 7.6 (IC95% 7.2-8.0) vs 5.5 (IC95% 5.4-5.6);bladder cancer: 25.1 (IC95% 24.4-25.9) vs 17.3 (IC95% 17.1-17.4); in females for the following causes: liver cancer: 3.8 (IC95% 3.6-4.1) vs 3.3 (IC95% 3.2-3.4);bladder cancer:: 3.5 (IC95% 3.3-3.7) vs 3.0 (IC95% 2.9-3.0). In Campania Region, mortality rates comparable to or lower than the national average are observed for the remaining cancer causes both in females and in males. For almost all the death causes, the highest mortality rates are observed in the three LHUs of Naples (Naples centre, Naples 2 North, Naples 3 South); for some death causes, also the Province of Caserta presents the highest mortality rates. It is worth noting that these areas are characterised by the highest urbanisation and regional population density, and by exposures to possible environmental risks. Time trend analyses highlight that regional and national trends are similar for almost all the examined death causes. In Campania Region, males present decreasing trends for all-cause mortality; for respiratory system, circulatory system, and digestive system diseases; for all malignant cancers; for lung, prostate, and stomach cancers; for leukaemias. On the other hand, an increasing trend is shown for liver cancer. Trends for genitourinary system and nervous system diseases are almost unchanged; the same is for blood diseases and haemolymphopoietic system cancers. In females, there is a decreasing mortality trend for all causes, for circulatory system and digestive system diseases; for haemolymphopoietic system and stomach cancers; on the contrary, an increasing trend is highlighted for communicable diseases and lung and liver cancer, mirroring the national situation. Trends for respiratory system, genitourinary system, nervous system diseases; blood diseases; all malignant cancers; kidney and breast cancers; leukaemias are almost unchanged. The analysis of mortality data on municipal basis reported that the most excesses in mortality risk occur in the municipalities included in the area with the highest urban development of Naples and, partly, in the municipalities of the Caserta Province. The distribution of the excesses at municipal level is not homogeneous in Campania Region, but there are relevant intermunicipal differences related to the considered causes of death. This heterogeneity in the distribution of excess risk is a characteristic also of the area called Terra di fuochi (Land of fires), both for overall mortality and for mortality by gender.
CONCLUSIONS: Mortality data are a valuable support to the analysis of the population health conditions. Excesses in general mortality and for some specific causes found in Campania Region vs Italy in 2006-2014 suggest that in this region there is a need to implement more strict intervention in terms both of primary prevention (for individuals and the environment) and of management of the whole care and clinical pathway of some pathologies, bearing in mind the burden of regional structural and economic factors on these excesses. The highest excesses in mortality in Campania Region have been found in the areas with the highest degree of urbanisation: this confirms the national data of a different distribution of diseases - and mortality - in the areas characterised by high urban development compared to rural areas. Finally, cause-specific mortality maps at municipal level, extended to the whole region, could enable to identify possible critical issues which may need epidemiological studies focused on possible local factors of environmental pressure.
|Translated title of the contribution||Mortality Atlas of the Campania Region. All-cause and cause-specific mortality at municipal level, 2006-2014|
|Number of pages||144|
|Issue number||1 Suppl 1|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 11 2020|